digital thermometer

A medical thermometer is used for measuring human or animal body temperature. The tip of the thermometer is inserted into the mouth below the tongue (oral or sub-lingual temperature), under the armpit (axillary temperature), or into the rectum via the anus (rectal temperature).A medical thermometer is used for measuring human or animal body temperature. The tip of the thermometer is inserted into the mouth below the tongue (oral or sub-lingual temperature), under the armpit (axillary temperature), or into the rectum via the anus (rectal temperature).Contents [hide]1 History2 Classification by location2.1 Oral2.2 Armpit2.3 Rectal2.4 Ear2.5 Temporal artery2.6 Forehead3 Classification by technology3.1 Liquid-filled3.1.1 Mercury3.2 Liquid crystal3.3 Electronic3.3.1 Contact3.3.2 Remote3.3.3 Accuracy3.4 Basal thermometer4 See also5 Footnotes6 ReferencesHistory[edit]It lacked an accurate scale with which to measure temperature and may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure.[1][2]Italian physician Santorio Santorio is the first known individual to have put a measurable scale on the thermoscope and wrote of it in 1625, though he possibly invented one as early as 1612.There are. The earliest is Ferdinando II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1610–1670), who created an enclosed thermometer that used alcohol circa 1654.[2] Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), a Polish-born Dutch physicist, engineer, and glass blower, made contributions to thermometers as well. He created an alcohol thermometer in 1709 and innovated the mercury thermometer in 1714. Mercury, he found, responded quickly to temperature changes than the water that was previously used. Fahrenheit created the temperature scale that is named after him, having recorded the system in 1724. The scale is still only mainly used for everyday applications in the United States, its territories and associated states (all served by the U.S. National Weather Service) as well as the Bahamas, Belize, and the Cayman Islands.[1][2][3][4]Prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist Christiaan Huygens created a clinical thermometer in 1665, to which he added an early form of the centigrade scale by setting the scale to the freezing and boiling points of water.[1] By 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created the Celsius temperature scale that was the reverse of the modern scale, in that 0 was the boiling point of water, while 100 was freezing. It would later be reversed by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) in 1744.[2][5]It was also utilized around the same time by Scottish physician George Martine (1700–1741). De Haen made particular strides in medicine with the thermometer. By observing the correlation in a patient’s change in temperature and the physical symptoms of the illness, he concluded that a record of one’s temperature could inform the doctor of a patient’s health. However, his proposals were not met with enthusiasm by his peers and the medical thermometer remained a scarcely used instrument in medicine.[1]Thermometers remained cumbersome to transport and use. Between 1866-1867, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836–1925) designed a medical thermometer that was much more portable, measuring only six inches long and taking only five minutes to record a patient’s temperature.[1][2]In German physician, 1868, pioneer psychiatrist, and medical professor Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich published his studies that consisted of over one million readings from twenty-five thousand patients’ temperatures.Dr. Theodor H. Benzinger (13 April 1905 – 26 Oct 1999) invented the ear thermometer in 1964. Born in Stuttgart, Germany, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1947 and became a naturalized citizen in 1955. He worked from 1947 to 1970 in the bioenergetics division in the Naval Medical Research Center in Bethesda, Maryland.[11][12]Classification by location[edit]The temperature could be measured in various locations on the body which maintain a fairly stable temperature (mainly sub-lingual, axillary, rectal, vaginal, forehead, or temporal artery). The normal temperature varies slightly with the location; an oral reading of 37 °C doesn’t correspond to rectal, temporal, etc. readings of the same value. The location should also be specified, when a temperature is quoted. If a temperature is stated without qualification (e.g., typical body temperature) it is usually assumed to be sub-lingual. The differences between core temperature and measurements at different locations is discussed in the article on normal human body temperature.Oral[edit]Oral temperature may be taken from a patient who is capable of holding the thermometer securely under the tongue, which excludes people or small children who are unconscious or overcome by weakness, coughing, or vomiting. (This is less of a problem with fast-reacting digital thermometers, but is certainly an issue with mercury thermometers, which take several minutes to stabilise their reading.) In case the patient has drunk a hot or cold liquid beforehand time has to be allowed for the mouth temperature to return to its normal value.[14]The typical range of a sub-lingual thermometer for use in humans is to 42 °C or 90 °F °C from about 35 to 110 °F.Armpit[edit]The armpit (axilla) temperature is measured by holding the thermometer tightly under the armpit. One needs to hold the thermometer for many minutes to get an accurate measurement.Rectal[edit]Main article: Rectal thermometry
different test prods (top: universal test prod, bottom: rectal test prod)Rectal temperature-taking, especially if performed by a person other than the patient, should be facilitated with the use of a water-based personal lubricant. Rectal temperature-taking is considered the method of choice for infants.[17]Ear[edit]The ear thermometer was invented by Dr. Theodor H. Benzinger in 1964. At the time, he was seeking a way to get a reading as close to the brain’s temperature as possible, since the core body temperature is regulated by the hypothalamus in the base of the brain. He accomplished this by using the blood vessels, which are shared with the hypothalamus of the ear canal’s ear drum. Before the ear thermometer’s invention, easy temperature readings could only be taken from the mouth, rectum or underarm. Previously, if doctors wanted to record an accurate brain temperature, electrodes needed to be attached to the patient’s hypothalamus.[12]These thermometers are used in medical facilities and in the home.There are factors that make readings of the thermometer to some extent unreliable, for example faulty placement in the external ear canal by the operator, and wax blocking the canal. Such error-producing factors usually cause readings to be below the true value, so that a fever can fail to be detected.[citation needed]Temporal artery[edit]A temporal artery thermometer, which uses the infrared principle report temperature, were not very accurate and therefore caution should be used.[18]Forehead[edit]The band thermometer is put on the patient’s brow. This type may give an indication of fever, but is not considered accurate.Classification by technology[edit]Liquid-filled[edit]The traditional thermometer is a glass tube with a bulb at one end containing. The tube itself is narrow (capillary) and has calibration markings along it. Alcohol thermometers use a colored alcohol, although the liquid is often mercury. A maximum thermometer is often used, which indicates the maximum temperature reached after it’s removed from the body.To use the thermometer, the bulb is placed in the location where the temperature is to be measured and left long enough to be certain to reach thermal equilibrium—typically three minutes. Maximum-reading is achieved by means of a constriction in the neck close to the bulb. As the temperature of the bulb rises, the liquid expands the tube up through the constriction. The column of liquid breaks at the constriction and cannot return to the bulb, thus remaining stationary in the tube, when the temperature falls. The thermometer should be reset by repeatedly swinging it to shake the liquid back through the constriction, after reading the value.Mercury[edit]Mercury-in-glass thermometers have been considered the most accurate liquid-filled types. However, mercury is a toxic heavy metal, if protected from breakage of the tube and mercury has been used in clinical thermometers.The tube should be very narrow to minimise the amount of mercury in it—the temperature of the tube is not controlled, so it has to contain very much less mercury in relation to the bulb to minimise the effect of the temperature of the tube—and this makes the reading rather difficult as the narrow mercury column is not very visible. Visibility is less of a problem with a coloured liquid.In the 1990s it was decided[19] that mercury-based thermometers were too risky to handle; the vigorous swinging needed to “reset” a mercury maximum thermometer makes it easy to accidentally break it and spill the moderately poisonous mercury.Liquid crystal[edit]A liquid crystal thermometer contains heat-sensitive (thermochromic) liquid crystals in a plastic strip that change color to indicate different temperatures.

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By | 2017-06-24T12:15:17+00:00 20. 6. 2017|Thermometers|Comments Off on Digital thermometer

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